Born in 1972, Helsinki. He graduated in law at the University of Helsinki and completed his Ph.D in European Union law at the University of Cambridge, England, with the dissertation “Mixed Agreements as a Technique of Organizing the International Relations of the European Community and its Member States”, published by Kluwer Law International. From 2002 to 2005, he worked as Secretary of Legislation and Counsellor of Legislation at the Ministry of Justice, Helsinki and a legal adviser of the delegation of Finland to the Intergovernmental Conference (IGC) 2003-4. During the Finnish Presidency of the Council of the European Union in 2006, he chaired the Ad Hoc Working Party on Citizenship and Fundamental Rights of the Council of the European Union, preparing the decision to set up the Fundamental Rights Agency of the European Union. In 2007 he became the Deputy Agent of the Government of Finland before the Court of Justice of the European Union and, in 2010, the Principal Agent of the Government and the Director of EU Litigation at the Ministry for Foreign Affairs. Since 2002, he has also been Adjunct Professor of International Law at the University of Helsinki. He has published widely on external relations law of the European Union and is also a frequent lecturer.